Rosh Chodesh

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Oil Paintings, Prints, Drawings and Water Colors


Rosh Chodesh



Rosh Chodesh - March 2022
© Drew Kopf 2022


Title: Rosh Chodesh

Medium: Water Color and Graphite on Paper

Size: 22" x 28" Unframed

Available Framed or Unframed

Signed: Drew Geoffrey Kopf 2022 lower left and Dov Ben Tsvee Hersh Ha Kohain (in Hebrew) - 5782 lower right

Created: March 2022

Original: ________, Virginia

The text afixed to the back of the framed origional and which is provided with each geclee copy, reads as follows:


Rosh Chodesh: An in Depth Overview

by Drew Geoffrey Kopf

March 22, 2022


There is much much more to the Jewish Holiday of Rosh Chodesh (Head of the Month) than one might ever appreciate at first glance.

Let's face it, kids being raised in a typical Jewish family in America usually get introduced to Shabbas (the Sabbath), Passover and the High Holidays of Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year) and Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement) and after that it is kind of hit or miss depending on how into the observance of the Jewish religion in general one's immediate family might be as to whether or not and when he or she as kids will learn about, experience or observe the other Jewish holidays; major or minor.

Purim gives kids and adults who are kids at heart a chance to dress up in costumes and even to participate in performing a Purim Shpiel (a play) dealing with the story of Queen Esther from the Megillahs Esther (the Book of Esther) which dates to the fifth century BCE (Before the Common Era). Families active in synagogues would surely participate in Purim related activities and services which would almost certainly become important parts of their children's memories of growing up.  

Passover is the singular most observed Jewish Holiday there is. One would think it would be Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish New Year) or Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement). But, both of those holidays are synagogue oriented. Sure, you could fast all day during Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement) and you could feel like you are observing it. But, very few actually do that.

Passover is the quintessential home oriented Jewish holiday due to the Seder (the Passover Meal) that follows the order delineated in the Hagadah (the Booklet outlining every step to take and the words to recite by each member of the family) and when you are invited to attend a Seder by your grandma or grandpa or almost anyone else it is hard if not impossible to decline.

The two other Regalim (Pilgrimage Festivals), after Passover are Shavuot (the Feast of Weeks), and Sukkos (Tabernacles). These three holidays are when the ancient Israelites living in the Kingdom of Judah would make a pilgrimage to the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, as commanded to do so in the Torah.

Exodus Chapter 23 Verses: 14–17

Exodus Chapter 23

Verse 14: Offer a sacrifice to Me three times each year.

Exodus Chapter 23

Verse 15: Keep the Festival of Matzah. Eat matzah for seven days, as I commanded you, during the prescribed time in the month of standing grain, since this is when you left Egypt.
Do not appear before Me empty-handed.

Exodus Chapter 23

Verse16: [Also keep] the Reaping Festival, through the first fruits of your produce that you planted in the field. [There is also] the Harvest Festival [right after] the end of the year, when you gather your produce from the field.

Exodus Chapter 23

Verse 17: Three times each year, every male among you must appear before God, Master [of the Universe].

Today, each of these holiday periods comes along as the year advances and would have their individual effects on youngsters who observe them to where, year after year, they would or could become welcome times of joyous family and communal get-togethers.
There is an in depth presentation of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals at the following URL address:

The timing of these and other such Jewish religious observances is an interesting mix of sun centered events and moon related happenings.

Each week, Shabbas (the Sabbath) begins and ends with the setting of the sun. The same is true with regard to the beginning and the ending of the various holidays. The setting of the sun ends one day and begins the next one.

We get that from Genesis Chapter 1 Verse 5

And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night, and it was evening and it was morning, one day.   

הוַיִּקְרָ֨א אֱלֹהִ֤ים | לָאוֹר֙ י֔וֹם וְלַח֖שֶׁךְ קָ֣רָא לָ֑יְלָה וַֽיְהִי־עֶ֥רֶב וַֽיְהִי־בֹ֖קֶר י֥וֹם אֶחָֽד:

Shabbas candles are lit ushering in the "Day of Rest" as the day is ending which is determined by the setting of the sun. 

On a daily basis, morning prayers may be recited once the dawn of each new day is determined by one being able to see the difference in color between the blue and the white TzitSees (fringes or strings tied on to the four corners of a person's prayer shawl) strictly with the aid of the available natural sunlight. Until one can see the difference between the white and blue fringes it is still night. 

The sun is key in this way to Jews who choose to observe these time related practices on a day-by-day and week-by-week basis.

But, when it comes to determining which days are to be considered Choal (regular days) and which days are to be set aside as Kodesh (Holy Days) the sun, even in its amazing strength, brilliance and consistency, is not used as the determining factor.  

The moon, which is constantly changing in its relationship to the earth and which reveals those changes in the way it appears in the sky, when it appears at all, can be and is used as if it was designed to be a finely calibrated reference device for precisely measuring time periods so that they can be reserved as special and so that those of us who want to follow the dictates found in the Torah to pay tribute to the Almighty can do so and, by doing so, can connect to the Jewish People of yesterday, today and tomorrow in an effort to serve as a light unto the other nations (people) of the world.

So, when we said at the opening of this piece "There is much much more to the Jewish Holiday of Rosh Chodesh (Head of the Month) than one might ever appreciate at first glance." we should have noted that the phrase "Rosh Chodesh" is missing something just standing there by itself. What is missing is the name of the month that will give the words Rosh Chodesh what those words need to define. Rosh Chodesh ________ (the Head of the Month of ________). Fill in the blank month by month through each year.

The Hebrew names of the month were adopted from the Babylonian calendar during the Babylonian exile in 586 B.C.E. The first written Jewish calendar was compiled by Hillel II in 359 of the Common Era.

There are twelve months in the Jewish calendar but, again, it is not that simple. 
The names of the months are Tishri, Cheshvan, Kislev, Tevet, Shevat, Adar, Nisan, Iyar, Sivan, Tammuz, Av, and Elul. In a leap year, Adar is replaced by Adar II (also called Adar Sheni or Veadar) and an extra month, Adar I (also called Adar Rishon), is inserted before Adar II.

Rosh Chodesh is the holiday that celebrates the arrival of the new moon each month and which marks the beginning of the next month in the Jewish calendar year.

What does not get discussed often enough is that the lunar cycle is very precise but it is also oddly shaped. That is to say that though each month is exactly the same duration as the others they are each twenty-nine and a half days in duration. 

Whose idea was that?

A day has twenty-four hours. A week has seven days. A month has twenty-nine and a half days. It is just not going to sell. How do we do a half a day? What are we supposed to do, skip lunch? 

Still, with that extra half a day hanging out there each month, we end up with an extra six days a year without a place on the calendar to put them.

People want some kind of regularity when it comes to things as important as the calendar. What each of us does with each day allotted to us is, of course, up to each of us on our own. But, a calendar that makes sense is an absolute must.

Those in charge early on decided to do what might be seen as “splitting the difference” by making some months have twenty-nine days and the remaining months have thirty days.
Each month that is twenty-nine days long has its beginning celebrated as its Rosh Chodesh for one day held on the very first day of the new month. 

The months that are thirty days long have their Rosh Chodesh celebrations on two days; but the two days are not the first two days of the new month but, rather, on the last day of the current month (the month now ending) and on the first day of the new month. 
There is a “certain” logic to it when we think about it. We remember learning that in the early days when a holiday like Passover was declared to have begun the news would be transmitted to outlying districts by having signal fires lit on mountain tops so that those waiting in distant territories would then light similar signal fires to continue transmitting the message that the holiday had begun. The longer the distances the more time it would take for the message to be sent and received way far away. 

To make sure that long distance locations observed the holiday on the proper day the people there would celebrate the first day of that holiday on two days rather just one. The only time that would not be done was on Yom Kippur.  That holy day was so ... holy... that super duper extra care would be taken to make sure they got it right.

Now, with a better appreciation of when Rosh Chodesh is to be observed, we can try to get our arms around how Rosh Chodesh is to be observed and why. 

First, please, a question?  Did the Avos (our Forefathers Abraham, Isaac and Jacob) observe the Jewish holidays?

We can safely say they did not.

What about Shabbas (the Sabbath)?  

We can say they probably did in some way.

Genesis Chapter 18, 

Verse 17: And the Lord said, "Shall I conceal from Abraham what I am doing? 
  יזוַֽיהֹוָ֖ה אָמָ֑ר הַֽמֲכַסֶּ֤ה אֲנִי֙ מֵֽאַבְרָהָ֔ם אֲשֶׁ֖ר אֲנִ֥י עֹשֶֽׂה:

Genesis Chapter 18,

Verse 18: And Abraham will become a great and powerful nation, and all the nations of the world will be blessed in him.   יחוְאַ֨בְרָהָ֔ם הָי֧וֹ יִֽהְיֶ֛ה לְג֥וֹי גָּד֖וֹל וְעָצ֑וּם וְנִ֨בְרְכוּ־ב֔וֹ כֹּ֖ל גּוֹיֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ:

Genesis Chapter 26

Verse 4: And I will multiply your seed like the stars of the heavens, and I will give your seed all these lands, and all the nations of the earth will bless themselves by your seed, 

  דוְהִרְבֵּיתִ֤י אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ֙ כְּכֽוֹכְבֵ֣י הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם וְנָתַתִּ֣י לְזַרְעֲךָ֔ אֵ֥ת כָּל־הָֽאֲרָצֹ֖ת הָאֵ֑ל וְהִתְבָּֽרֲכ֣וּ בְזַרְעֲךָ֔ כֹּ֖ל גּוֹיֵ֥י הָאָֽרֶץ:

Genesis Chapter 26

Verse 5: Because Abraham hearkened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My instructions." 

  העֵ֕קֶב אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַ֥ע אַבְרָהָ֖ם בְּקֹלִ֑י וַיִּשְׁמֹר֙ מִשְׁמַרְתִּ֔י מִצְו‍ֹתַ֖י חֻקּוֹתַ֥י וְתֽוֹרֹתָֽי:

Did they do so as we do today? Probably not. But, there was surely an understanding of resting from the work of the other days of the week the way the L-rd rested from having created the world in six days and rested on the seventh day.

Genesis Chapter 2 Verses: 2-3

Genesis Chapter

Verse 2: And God completed on the seventh day His work that He did, and He abstained on the seventh day from all His work that He did.

  בוַיְכַ֤ל אֱלֹהִים֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֣ר עָשָׂ֑ה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת֙ בַּיּ֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֖וֹ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עָשָֽׂה:

Genesis Chapter 2

Verse 3: And God blessed the seventh day and He hallowed it, for thereon He abstained from all His work that God created to do. 

  גוַיְבָ֤רֶךְ אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶת־י֣וֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִ֔י וַיְקַדֵּ֖שׁ אֹת֑וֹ כִּ֣י ב֤וֹ שָׁבַת֙ מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּ֔וֹ אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים לַֽעֲשֽׂוֹת:

But, that was all dependent on the rising and the setting of the sun on a daily basis.
So, the obvious question is, if observing the Shabbas (the Sabbath) each week was enough for the Avos (the Forefathers Abraham,  Isaac and Jacob), why was that not considered enough for the Jewish People going forward following the four hundred years of having been slaves in the Land of Egypt and for us today?

And, while we are at it, what was the purpose of having the descendants of the Avos (our Forefathers) and the others who had become part of the Covenantal Community be forced into slavery and to remain so from generation to generation for an amazing four hundred years?

Abraham learned that his descendants would be slaves for four hundred years from the L-rd but in a rather unusual way.

Genesis Chapter 15 Verses 12 and 13

Genesis Chapter 15

Verse 12: Now the sun was ready to set, and a deep sleep fell upon Abram, and behold, a fright, a great darkness was falling upon him. 

  יבוַיְהִ֤י הַשֶּׁ֨מֶשׁ֙ לָב֔וֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָ֖ה נָֽפְלָ֣ה עַל־אַבְרָ֑ם וְהִנֵּ֥ה אֵימָ֛ה חֲשֵׁכָ֥ה גְדֹלָ֖ה נֹפֶ֥לֶת עָלָֽיו:

Genesis Chapter 15

Verse 13: And He said to Abram, "You shall surely know that your seed will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and they will enslave them and oppress them, for four hundred years. 

  יגוַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְאַבְרָ֗ם יָדֹ֨עַ תֵּדַ֜ע כִּי־גֵ֣ר | יִֽהְיֶ֣ה זַרְעֲךָ֗ בְּאֶ֨רֶץ֙ לֹ֣א לָהֶ֔ם וַֽעֲבָד֖וּם וְעִנּ֣וּ אֹתָ֑ם אַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָֽה:

Very interesting. 

Clearly, the L-rd had long-term slavery in His plan for the descendants of the Avos right from the very beginning.  Why the L-rd informs Abraham about his plan to have Abraham's descendants experience slavery in a strange land for four hundred years while Abraham is asleep adds to the interest level. 

We have to wonder, does Abraham remember this news about four hundred years of slavery when he wakes up? If he does, does he share this knowledge with Sarah or with his son Isaac or with anyone else?

And while we are in this questioning mode, why did the L-rd share this rather important information with Father Abraham in this very strange way; i.e. while Abraham was asleep?
At the very least, Abraham's knowledge of this, then, future enslavement of his descendants would, we would guess, be in his subliminal knowledge bank. 

There is though an indication that all of the Avos (the Forefathers) were made aware of this because we are told the L-rd made a promise to remember the descendants of the Avos (the Forefathers) and take them out of the land where they would be enslaved.

Genesis Chapter 50 Verse 24: 

Joseph said to his brothers, "I am going to die; God will surely remember you and take you up out of this land to the land that He swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob."

  כדוַיֹּ֤אמֶר יוֹסֵף֙ אֶל־אֶחָ֔יו אָֽנֹכִ֖י מֵ֑ת וֵֽאלֹהִ֞ים פָּקֹ֧ד יִפְקֹ֣ד אֶתְכֶ֗ם וְהֶֽעֱלָ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ מִן־הָאָ֣רֶץ הַזֹּ֔את אֶל־הָאָ֕רֶץ אֲשֶׁ֥ר נִשְׁבַּ֛ע לְאַבְרָהָ֥ם לְיִצְחָ֖ק וּלְיַֽ

as the four hundred years of enslavement to happen so that they, the Jews in Egypy or we (everyone after them) would be better able to appreciate being free?

That sure seems logical. 

So, why didn't the Jews of the time of the Avos (The Forefathers) and the Covenantal Community need that experience and the observing of all the holidays that came along with the Exodus from Egypt and becoming and being free?

The answer that comes to mind is that the Avos (the Forefathers) and the other members of the Covenantal Community had a much closer relationship with the Almighty than anyone who might come along in the future.

Let's think about it. Abraham lived just ten generations after Noah so the story of the flood was much more of a reality to them than the way we tend to regard it today, i.e. like a kid's Bible story rather than as a very real happening that killed all living land based animals and all humans save for those saved on the ark.

That is pretty heavy stuff, which would have been told to children generation after generation all the way to and including Father Abraham, who surely factored those stories in when he was observing the world and finally reasoned and came to the conclusion that there must be a G-d who was (is) all powerful and who created the world and mankind for some very special reason.

It was that reasoning and thinking that made Abraham reject the ways of everyone else including his own parents who were idolaters and who were just this side of being barbarians if they were not actually barbarians.

How was the L-rd to draw a proverbial line in the sand (but a real one in our case) for people who are and will be so far reserved from the world that the Avos (the Forefathers) knew so that they would have an appreciation for life illuminated by the knowledge that there is a caring and all powerful G-d and to, therefore, reject paganism and barbarism in favor of a belief in the L-rd alone.

It took ten generations of human beings from Adam to Noah to decay into what was an almost completely unacceptable version of what the Almighty had hoped Mankind would become to where the L-rd opted to start all over again with Noah, Noah's wife, their three sons and their son's wives and to destroy all the other land based beings with the flood. 
Now, ten generations after Noah we have Abraham who discovers the Almighty and from him evolves the Covenantal Community.  But, The L-rd has the experiential knowledge that after ten generations mankind seems to drift. Perhaps that was where the L-rd's four hundred years of enslavement plan came into being to counteract the human being's natural tendency to drift away from its history. 

At the same time, how would the Jewish People be able to preserve their identity as members of the Covenantal Community if they literally had next to nothing to help them do so. Would they be able to observe Shabbas (the Sabbath) when their owners (the Egyptians) were able to have them do whatever they wanted them to do whenever they wanted it to be done? Surely they could not. As slaves, their time was never their own.

So what was it? What did the Jewish People as slaves in Egypt for four hundred years have going for them that helped them stay Jewish; to maintain their individual and communal identity as descendants of the original Covenantal Community,  of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob until the L-rd was ready to redeem them and set them free?

There was of course their slave owners, the Egyptians themselves, who surely and probably constantly reminded the Jews that they, the Jews, were different than their owners simply because they were Jews.

But, there was something else as well. 

His name was Joseph.

Joseph was one very special individual. 

After his own father, Jacob, died, he sought and got permission from Pharaoh to return his father's body to Canaan for burial. After taking care of that sad but very important responsibility, he returned to Egypt and spoke to his family so they would know that they would be safe and protected even thought they had been extremely unkind to Joseph earlier on.

Joseph then spoke to the people and presented his request that when he died that they would do similarly for him as he had done for his father Jacob when the L-rd would finally come back and redeem his people. 

Genesis Chapter 50 Verse 25

And Joseph adjured the children of Israel, saying, "God will surely remember you, and you shall take up my bones out of here."

  כהוַיַּשְׁבַּ֣ע יוֹסֵ֔ף אֶת־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר פָּקֹ֨ד יִפְקֹ֤ד אֱלֹהִים֙ אֶתְכֶ֔ם וְהַֽעֲלִתֶ֥ם אֶת־עַצְמֹתַ֖י מִזֶּֽה

Genesis Chapter 50 Verse 26

And Joseph died at the age of one hundred ten years, and they embalmed him and he was placed into the coffin in Egypt.

  כווַיָּ֣מָת יוֹסֵ֔ף בֶּן־מֵאָ֥ה וָעֶ֖שֶׂר שָׁנִ֑ים וַיַּֽחַנְט֣וּ אֹת֔וֹ וַיִּ֥ישֶׂם בָּֽאָר֖וֹן בְּמִצְרָֽיִם:

The promise he exacted from the leadership of his compatriots became what was a veritable anchor that the leadership of the Jewish People who entered slavery and remained slaves for several generation must have passed on to their survivors generation after generation until Moses came along to redeem them.

Did Joseph know what he was doing when he exacted that promise for them to make sure that his bones would be returned to their homeland? 

We have to believe he absolutely did. He had to know that they would have to insure that his bones were kept safe from the Egyptians who he knew would be wanting to find and destroy them. The promise he had his Jewish community make would end up being their salvation in a way. Joseph knew exactly what he was doing.

When Moses came along to lead the Jewish People out of slavery one of the early pronouncements from the Almighty was that the yearly calendar would be lunar oriented.

Exodus Chapter 12 Verses 1-2: "The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, This month shall mark for you the beginning of the months. It shall be the first of the months of the year for you."

The way we mark each new month involves chanting verses from the Torah that focus on the direction the Torah gives us regarding this very aspect of what,  from then and onward, would be the way things would be done.

Once we have the Torah Reading for Rosh Chodesh we just need to touch base on the ways that Rosh Chodesh is observed. As special as Rosh Chodesh may be, we must remember that Rosh Chodesh is a minor holiday. That is to say that though we may do certain things on Rosh Chodesh to distinguish it from regular days, it is not in the category of the Sabbath or of a Moaid (a Holy Day such as Rosh Hashanah or the first two or last two days of the a three Pilgrimages). 

In ancient times Rosh Chodesh was a day when family and friends would gather to enjoy festive meals together. People would take the day off from their regular work routines or from transacting business in any way. That makes sence since when there still was a Holy Temple the day would be used to travel to the Holy Temple. After a long trip to reach the Holy Temple, there was really not much more that could be done save for the offering of the charitable sacrifices at the Holy Templ and having meals with family and friends.

In more modern times, people attend services at their community synagogues. The Cantor would add a melody or melodies associated with an upcoming holiday that will be taking place during the new month to some of the everyday prayers to help the congregation ready themselves spiritually and emotionally for the upcoming month.

More recently, with the advent and growing popularity of egalitarianism, the month-by-month lunar cycle has been compared and associated with the monthly female menstrual cycle which has catapulted Rosh Chodesh into a time when women of all ages choose to gather together to focus on things that they all have in common and to develop a communal connectivity that is highly valued by them. Learning Torah and and participating in communal prayer is often included in their get-togethers.

The community at large recognizes each Rosh Chodesh by including special prayers in the evening, morning and afternoon services, by including the recitation of certain appropriate blessings and by reading the verses from the Torah that spells out the Rosh Chodesh marching orders.

Following are the verses from the Torah that are chanted during ShaChaResh (morning) services on each Rosh Chodesh morning: 

Bamidbar - Numbers

Chapter 28 Verses 1 through 15

The Kohain (Priestly class who trace their lineage back to Moses's brother Aaron) AhLeeAh (Going up to read from the Torah):

Numbers Chapter 28 Verses 1 - 3
Verse 1: The Lord spoke to: Moses, saying: 

  אוַיְדַבֵּ֥ר יְהֹוָ֖ה אֶל־משֶׂ֥ה לֵּאמֹֽר:

Verse 2: Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food for My fire offerings, a spirit of satisfaction for Me, you shall take care to offer to Me at its appointed time. 

  בצַ֚ו אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וְאָֽמַרְתָּ֖ אֲלֵהֶ֑ם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִ֨י לַחְמִ֜י לְאִשַּׁ֗י רֵ֚יחַ נִֽיחֹחִ֔י תִּשְׁמְר֕וּ לְהַקְרִ֥יב לִ֖י בְּמֽוֹעֲדֽוֹ:

Verse 3: And you shall say to them: This is the fire offering which you shall offer to the Lord: two unblemished lambs in their first year each day as a continual burnt offering.

  גוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ לָהֶ֔ם זֶ֚ה הָֽאִשֶּׁ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּקְרִ֖יבוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כְּבָשִׂ֨ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֧ה תְמִימִ֛ם שְׁנַ֥יִם לַיּ֖וֹם עֹלָ֥ה תָמִֽיד:

The Lavee (those of the family who served the Priests in the Holy Temple) AhLeeAh

Numbers Chapter 28 Verses 3 - 5

Verse 3: And you shall say to them: This is the fire offering which you shall offer to the Lord: two unblemished lambs in their first year each day as a continual burnt offering.

  גוְאָֽמַרְתָּ֣ לָהֶ֔ם זֶ֚ה הָֽאִשֶּׁ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר תַּקְרִ֖יבוּ לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה כְּבָשִׂ֨ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֧ה תְמִימִ֛ם שְׁנַ֥יִם לַיּ֖וֹם עֹלָ֥ה תָמִֽיד:

Verse 4: The one lamb you shall offer up in the morning, and the other lamb you shall offer up in the afternoon.   

דאֶת־הַכֶּ֥בֶשׂ אֶחָ֖ד תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֣ה בַבֹּ֑קֶר וְאֵת֙ הַכֶּ֣בֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בֵּ֥ין הָֽעַרְבָּֽיִם:

Verse 5: And one tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a meal offering, mixed with a quarter of a hin of crushed [olive] oil. 

  הוַֽעֲשִׂירִ֧ית הָֽאֵיפָ֛ה סֹ֖לֶת לְמִנְחָ֑ה בְּלוּלָ֛ה בְּשֶׁ֥מֶן כָּתִ֖ית רְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִֽין:

Third AhLeeAh

Numbers Chapter 28 Verses 6 - 10

Verae 6: A continual burnt offering, as the one offered up at Mount Sinai, for a spirit of satisfaction, a fire offering to the Lord. 

  ועֹלַ֖ת תָּמִ֑יד הָֽעֲשֻׂיָה֙ בְּהַ֣ר סִינַ֔י לְרֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:

Verse 7: Its libation shall be one quarter of a hin for each lamb, to be poured on the holy [altar] as a libation of strong wine to the Lord.

  זוְנִסְכּוֹ֙ רְבִיעִ֣ת הַהִ֔ין לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָ֑ד בַּקֹּ֗דֶשׁ הַסֵּ֛ךְ נֶ֥סֶךְ שֵׁכָ֖ר לַֽיהֹוָֽה:

Verse 8: And the second lamb you shall offer up in the afternoon. You shall offer it up with the same meal offering and libation as the morning [sacrifice], a fire offering with a spirit of satisfaction to the Lord. 

  חוְאֵת֙ הַכֶּ֣בֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִ֔י תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בֵּ֣ין הָֽעַרְבָּ֑יִם כְּמִנְחַ֨ת הַבֹּ֤קֶר וּכְנִסְכּוֹ֙ תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֔ה אִשֵּׁ֛ה רֵ֥יחַ נִיחֹ֖חַ לַֽיהֹוָֽה:

Verse 9: And on the Sabbath day, two unblemished lambs in the first year, and two tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil, and its libation.  

טוּבְיוֹם֙ הַשַּׁבָּ֔ת שְׁנֵֽי־כְבָשִׂ֥ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֖ה תְּמִימִ֑ם וּשְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֧לֶת מִנְחָ֛ה בְּלוּלָ֥ה בַשֶּׁ֖מֶן וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:

Verse 10: [This is] the burnt offering of each Sabbath on its Sabbath, in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation. 

  יעֹלַ֥ת שַׁבַּ֖ת בְּשַׁבַּתּ֑וֹ עַל־עֹלַ֥ת הַתָּמִ֖יד וְנִסְכָּֽהּ:

Fourth AhLeeAh

Numbers Chapter: 28 Verses: 11 - 15

Verae 11: And on the beginning of your months, you shall offer up a burnt offering to the Lord: two young bulls, one ram, and seven lambs in the first year, [all] unblemished. 

  יאוּבְרָאשֵׁי֙ חָדְשֵׁיכֶ֔ם תַּקְרִ֥יבוּ עֹלָ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה פָּרִ֨ים בְּנֵֽי־בָקָ֤ר שְׁנַ֨יִם֙ וְאַ֣יִל אֶחָ֔ד כְּבָשִׂ֧ים בְּנֵֽי־שָׁנָ֛ה שִׁבְעָ֖ה תְּמִימִֽם:

Verse 12: Three tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil for each bull, and two tenths of an ephah of fine flour as a meal offering, mixed with oil for each ram. 

  יבוּשְׁלשָׁ֣ה עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לַפָּ֖ר הָֽאֶחָ֑ד וּשְׁנֵ֣י עֶשְׂרֹנִ֗ים סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לָאַ֖יִל הָֽאֶחָֽד:

Verse 13: And one tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil as a meal offering for each lamb. A burnt offering with a spirit of satisfaction, a fire offering to the Lord. 

  יגוְעִשָּׂרֹ֣ן עִשָּׂר֗וֹן סֹ֤לֶת מִנְחָה֙ בְּלוּלָ֣ה בַשֶּׁ֔מֶן לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ הָֽאֶחָ֑ד עֹלָה֙ רֵ֣יחַ נִיחֹ֔חַ אִשֶּׁ֖ה לַֽיהֹוָֽה:

Verse 14: And their libations: a half of a hin for each bull, a third of a hin for each ram, and a quarter of a hin for each lamb wine; this is the burnt offering of each new month in its month, throughout the months of the year.

ידוְנִסְכֵּיהֶ֗ם חֲצִ֣י הַהִין֩ יִֽהְיֶ֨ה לַפָּ֜ר וּשְׁלִישִׁ֧ת הַהִ֣ין לָאַ֗יִל וּרְבִיעִ֥ת הַהִ֛ין לַכֶּ֖בֶשׂ יָ֑יִן זֹ֣את עֹלַ֥ת חֹ֨דֶשׁ֙ בְּחָדְשׁ֔וֹ לְחָדְשֵׁ֖י הַשָּׁנָֽה:

Verse 15: And one young male goat for a sin offering to the Lord; it shall be offered up in addition to the continual burnt offering and its libation.

טווּשְׂעִ֨יר עִזִּ֥ים אֶחָ֛ד לְחַטָּ֖את לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה עַל־עֹלַ֧ת הַתָּמִ֛יד יֵֽעָשֶׂ֖ה וְנִסְכּֽוֹ:

The following verse is not included in the monthly reading for Rosh Chodesh but it seems worthy of being mentioned as we tie a bow around our observations regarding the moon and its place in our lives in the Jewish community. 

Numbers Chapter 10 Verse 10

And on your joyous occasions—your fixed festivals and new moon days—you shall sound the trumpets over your burnt offerings and your sacrifices of well-being. They shall be a reminder of you before your God: I, יהוה, am your God. 

וּבְי֨וֹם שִׂמְחַתְכֶ֥ם וּֽבְמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם֮ וּבְרָאשֵׁ֣י חׇדְשֵׁיכֶם֒* וּתְקַעְתֶּ֣ם בַּחֲצֹֽצְרֹ֗ת עַ֚ל עֹלֹ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם וְעַ֖ל זִבְחֵ֣י שַׁלְמֵיכֶ֑ם וְהָי֨וּ לָכֶ֤ם לְזִכָּרוֹן֙ לִפְנֵ֣י אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶ֔ם אֲנִ֖י יְהֹוָ֥ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶֽם׃ {פ}

We can see that even though Rosh Chodesh is a minor holiday, there is something about it that touches each of us on a daily basis. Each day of each month the moon shows itself to us that is different and special from the day before and the day after. Even the disappearing of the moon and its slender reappearance strikes a chord within us if we take the time to take notice. The Jewish communal efforts to help us all do just that accomplishes two things for us. It helps us get out of our own way by reconnecting us to nature, the world and all that the Almighty has created for us to live in and enjoy. And, at the same time, it gives us a way to fulfill the L-rd's directions to connect with Him directly in this way for all that it can do to help each and every one of us better serve as a light unto the other nations (people) of the world.

Helpful Links:
There is a very well presented piece at the following URL address that delineates how these verses from the Torah are to be chanted on Rosh Chodesh and why it is done the way we do it in all the various situations that will present themselves month by month through the year:

The Lunar Phases Day by Day and Moment by Moment right on time:




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